birthstone rings

November Birthstone Citrine


Citrine along with Topaz it forms the birthstone of November and is also recognized as the gemstone to celebrate the 17th wedding anniversary.

The name citrine is derived from the Latin word citrus, meaning Lemon. Citrine has been highly regarded as gemstone and healing stone for almost six thousand years. As beliefs its colour, it is recognized as the stone of light, sun, and life.

With the hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale it is very resistant to scratches and as it is does not suffer from any cleavage problems, it is incredible all-around winner for jewellery. It is sure to remain at the front of contemporary jewellery for many years to come.

Topaz is harder then Citrine. However, unlike topaz, citrine because of its structure is ideal stone for cutting into unusual shapes and for use in bespoke jewelry.

November Birthstone

November Birthstone - TOPAZ

Along with Citrine, Topaz is the birthstone for November. It is also a suggested wedding gift for both 4th and 23rd anniversary. That said, its gorgeous brilliance and crystal clarity makes it a wonderful gift for all occasions.

It is unclear how the gem was first named. What we do know is that the small island in the Red Sea which is today known as Zabargad, was once named Topazios.

Topaz is fantastic gem to use in jewellery, not only for its stunning colours but also because of its durability, reaching 8 on the Mohs scale. It is a pleochroic gemstone, which means that different colours can be seen from different angles as you move the gem in the light.

Topaz occurs in many colors, tints and hues. They are found in many parts of the world. And form in crystals that can weigh several kilos. Topaz prices run from the down-right cheap, to very expensive. Rivaling some of the most expensive colored gemstones on the market. The main issues with topaz are to know that there are no synthetics, there are a lot of trade names out there that are as varied as the colors of topaz themselves, and that topaz prices will vary widely with the various varieties.


List of Birthstones

emerald ring

Emerald - May Birthstone

Emerald May Birthstone

Emeralds are a form of beryl, like aquamarines, and have been mined and used in jewellery for thousands of years. Somewhat· confusingly, the word "emerald" was used until the late 19thC to refer to all green stones. The geographical origin of a stone is vitally important to its value.

Most emeralds come from Colombia, the most sought-after from the Muzo and Chivor mines. Emeralds are also found in the Urals, Siberia, East Africa, India and Pakistan. There is also an important deposit at the Sandawana mine in Zimbabwe. Some of the most important surviving emerald Jewellery was made in 16thC India, and it was originally thought that the stones were Indian; it is now known that the emeralds were brought to India from Colombia by the Spanish. These older Colombian stones are of better quality than those mined today, the best deposits having been exhausted.

Some of the good-quality old stones have been re-cut, so that it is possible for a modern-looking gemstone really to be old material reused.


Unlike diamonds and sapphires which vary in colour, emeralds are only ever green. Their colour results from the presence of chromium, though there may also be traces of vanadium, the pigment found in violet sapphires.

The best stones from the Muzo mine in Colombia are a rich, deep grass green with a slight yellow tinge and at the same time a flash of blue. The lesser-quality stone show lack of depth or brilliance. Although emeralds, when viewed separately, may seem to be uniform in colour, when they are compared with each other, the differences in hue are obvious.

Stones from the Sandawana deposit in Zimbabwe are sometimes almost flawless, and are a deep green, darker than Colombian stones, with a blackish tinge and no hint of yellow. Siberian or Ural emeralds tend to be a paler mid-green and are of lower value. Almost colourless emeralds are sometimes found, and in past centuries these were set with green foil backs to intensify their colour. In its natural state, the emerald is formed in a long hexagonal system, rather like a stick of candy, which runs through its host rock.


It is extremely rare to find a finely coloured emerald without inclusions; even in the good-quality stone these are visible. An emerald with few or no inclusions may well be cause for suspicion. Most emeralds seen on the market today are heavily flawed, sometimes extremely so. Siberian and Ural stones tend to be the most included, which lends the stones a milky, rather dull appearance.

Many modern emeralds have been "oiled" - the inclusions are filled with natural petroleum oil - and this treatment is termed "enhancement". It is not so acceptable in the gemmological field for inclusions to be filled with coloured resin or synthetic oils.

Emeralds are soft and very brittle compared to other gemstones, and are therefore easily damaged. Check stones carefully for chips or abrasions due to wear. Because of their delicacy, great care should be taken in setting and unsetting emeralds. Emeralds should be set with gold rather than platinum claws because the latter metal can scratch the stone's surface.


In 17thC Mughal India emeralds were often cut as hexagons, richly engraved with scrolling flora and foliage, and occasionally birds. Many were extremely large, over 100ct, and were worn unmounted as pendants. Many of these stones were later exported and mounted as brooches by Western jewelers. Partly to make them less susceptible to being knocked and partly to enhance the colour, a version of the rectangular step-cut with cut corners was developed in the mid-19thC.

This has become known as the "emerald cut" because it is so often used for this stone. Superior-quality emeralds are also multi-faceted, as in cushion cut and mixed-cut rings. More flawed stones are usually cut as cabochons or as beads for necklaces. Occasionally, they are also cut as cameos or intaglios but, due to the risk of splitting, this is a difficult technique.

To own Emerald is to own a piece of history, a piece of nature and work of art. Each one is truly individual. With its array of inclusions and clouds, the gem is not fame for its crystal clarity, but is steeped in so much history that we automatically ignore the gem’s imperfections when we study a piece and accept that these impurities are simply “ the fingerprints of Mother Nature”.

Birthstones Guide

Gemstone Introduction

Diamond - April Birthstone


Diamonds have been mined for centuries. The main locations were originally India and Brazil, but today they are also mined in South Africa, North America, Russia and Australia.

Of all the major precious gemstones, diamonds are the most famously valuable and generally recognizable as a white, brilliant stone. However, most people do not realize that diamonds are found in several colours.

Coloured diamonds

The most highly prized diamonds are referred to as  "fancy-coloured", and range in colour from yellow, brown, blue and green to red or even black in hues that run the scale from the palest hint of colour to deep shades. Natural coloration is due to a variety of factors, including chemical impurities within the stone. For example, nitrogen will result in yellow diamonds, while blue diamonds are caused by the presence of boron. Brown, pink and mauve diamonds are the result of a deformed chemical structure, while green diamonds are caused by naturel radiation.

Unlike white diamonds, there is no easy price guide with coloured diamonds, as this is such a complicated area of' study and one which is constantly being reassessed.

White diamonds

The majority of diamonds seen today fit into the colourless category. There are four factors which are vitally important when assessing the value and desirability of a stone, commonly referred to as the four Cs: cut, colour, and clarity and carat weight.

Carat weight is the easiest of the factors to determine, and there are instruments to measure the weight of diamonds.

Colour is a one of the most important of the four Cs, because the more colourless a stone, the rarer it is. Diamonds are graded for colour from "D" (the finest white stone) to "Z", and this wide range shows how many colour variations there are simply within the white Stone category. A "D" grade stone resembles pure white with no hint of colour, while an "M" grade stone is tinted and very often slightly yellow or champagne-coloured

Determining the clarity, or purity, of a stone is of equal importance. Natural diamonds are pure crystallized carbon, and often the scones are formed with naturally occurring inclusions (flaws) within the stone. These inclusions can take the form of small, black carbon spots, misty patches, or what appear to be white cracks (called gletz marks).

All of these inhibit the brilliance of the stone. The fewer the inclusions in a stone the better clarity of the diamond.

The cut of the diamond is the final factor in determining its value. Many people confuse the "cut" with the "shape" of a diamond. The seven most popular shapes are the multifaceted brilliant-cut round, marquise, pear, oval and heart, and the simpler step-cut square and emerald cuts. Though shape does not determine value, shapes can be cut well or badly. Thus, while the other criteria (colour, clarity, carat weight) depend on nature, the cut is completely determined by human skill. The skills of the various craftsmen during splitting, sawing, shaping and polishing determine the cut or "make" of the diamond.

Ideally, as much light as possible should be reflected through the diamond. When a diamond is well cut, light enters the stone through the top facets and is then reflected from one facet to another and back out through the top. This effect is known as "refraction".


Bloodstone – treasured in ancient times, Bloodstone ( also known as Heliotrope ) served as birthstone for march, until it was replaced in 1912 by Aquamarine. Once referred to as the martyr’s stone, medieval Christians often carved Bloodstone into scenes of the crucifixion. A fine example of carved Bloodstone can be found in the Louvre featuring a seal of the German Emperor Rudolf II.

Bloodstone is a member of the Chalcedony group of gems, who in turn belong to cryptocrystalline family of Quartz.

Aquamarine - March Birthstone

Aquamarine is one of the worlds most popular and well know gemstones.  Aquamarine is a real favourite of many gem collectors and in the word that’s becoming more and more polluted, Aquamarine offers us all a breath of fresh air.

A member of the Beryl family, Aquamarine’s characteristic pale blue colour is created by the presence of iron.

Its name is derived from the Latin “aqua” for “water” and “mare” for “sea”, and many superstitions and legends regarding sea have been attached to the gemstone over the years. Back on shore, Aquamarine is believed to both smooth and prolong relationships, and for this reason is often given as an anniversary gift.

Amethyst - February Birthstone

Amethysts are the purple variety of quartz crystal. They have been prized for many centuries for their rich colour and were used for beads, seals and other ornaments. In the late 18th and early 19thC amethysts were mainly used for ecclesiastical jewellery or by royalty, because they were very expensive at that time. During the 1850s large deposits were discovered in Brazil, making the mining of amethysts easy - their price plummeted and never recovered. The Stone ceased to be rare and became widely used. Large amethysts can still be bought relatively inexpensively.


Colour is the most important factor in determining the value of an amethyst. A good' stone should be a deep, rich velvety purple with a soft appearance. Due to their naturally irregular colour zoning, it is fairly unusual to find a perfectly evenly coloured stone. This can be seen in the faceted stones where the colour fades at the top. Siberian amethysts, considered to be the best, tend to be a soft reddish mauve. Uruguayan examples are more violet in hue, and Mexican stones are a paler greyish mauve.


Clarity is also a factor in the quality of an amethyst: generally only the clearest stones are faceted. The stones heavily flawed, has been polished as a cabochon to play down these flaws. The grading of amethysts, unlike many gemstones, is based not on inclusions but on visual effect.

Amethyst has been known to mankind for thousands of years and it was used for decorating jewellery. Throughout history men and women revered and admired this stone

It is believe that amethyst has a positive influence on the nervous system. It relieves conditions of tension and pressure and it is effective in treating headaches and insomnia

garnet birthstone

Garnet - January Birthstone

The Garnet is associated with fire, passion and blood. The associations of this extremely popular gemstone are numerous:

it is the birthstone of January,

is associated with astrological signs of both Aquarius and Leo,

and is also recommended gift for both 2nd and 6th wedding anniversaries.

Garnet is the name of a family of minerals, which similar crystal structure and related chemical composition. They grew in popularity in the late 18thC and are still widely used today, in either cut or polished cabochon form. Garnets are popularly believed to be red stones, but this is not always the case. Not only are garnets found in a whole variety of red hues, but also in green (though these are rarer). The main representatives of the garnet family are:

  • Pyrope (or rhodolite), is the most commonly used garnet today, and it was mined in enormous quantities in 19thC Bohemia. Therefore, the majority of 19thC rose-cut garnet jewellery on the market today is Bohemian, and stones are normally mounted in simple, low-carat gold or base metal settings. Usually pyrope garnets are attractive deep claret red, and are popular today for use in mass-produced jewellery.
  • Almandine garnets, have a more purple hue than pyropes, and were often used in polished cabochon form in 19thC Holbeinesque and Renaissance Revival jewellery, as well as in formal parures. The polished cabochon treatment creates a deep, luxurious effect. Many almandine garnets were foil-backed in the 19thC to enhance their colour (and these always have closed-backed settings). Though the almandine garnet shown here has inclusions, many gems used in the 19thC were flawless. The stones are not particularly valuable in their own

right, but when incorporated into a good piece of jewellery, they can be very desirable.

  • Grossular garnets (also known as "Tsavorite"), found in South Africa, Mexico and Oregon, are less common than pyropes and almandines. In its purest form, the grossular garnet is colourless, but is more often a yellowish brown, reddish pink or, most famously, green. While the green grossular garnet looks similar to the much rarer demantoid garnet, it lacks the latter's brilliant lustre. Often these stones have an almost oily appearance when looked at under a Ioupe, due to their oily inclusions, known as "treacle".
  • Demantoid garners are the rarest and most valuable of all the garnet family. Discovered in the late 1860s in the Ural mountains, demantoids range in colour from a dark emerald to a pale yellow-green. Apart from a characteristic brilliance, demantoids can be identified by their fibrous asbestos flaws, called "horserails".

Any stones over 2ct that have a good clarity are extremely rare and valuable.