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Garnet is the name of a family of minerals, which similar crystal structure and related chemical composition. They grew in popularity in the late 18thC and are still widely used today, in either cut or polished cabochon form. Garnets are popularly believed to be red stones, but this is not always the case. Not only are garnets found in a whole variety of red hues, but also in green (though these are rarer). The main representatives of the garnet family are:

Turquoises come from the Sinai Peninsula and Iran; they have more recently been found in Mexico. They were very popular in the late 18th and the 19thC because of their fashionable colour and afford ability.

The term sapphire is applied to all types of the mineral corundum (an aluminium oxide) except the ruby, Sapphires are much more common than rubies, and stones exceeding 10ct are not rare. Deposits are found in Kashmir, Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Australia and Montana...

 

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Magma is the source of all minerals. It compromises all of the basic elements found on earth.